Birds Body Parts: 21 Things And Facts You Should Know

Birds are mystical creatures that captivate the viewer’s attention with their beauty. There are many poems and stories that describe the beauty of birds and their way of life. Birds of different shapes, sizes, and colors never cease to amaze us, the humans. 

Intro Video - Backtobirds
Intro Video - Backtobirds

Birds are warm-blooded creatures that fall under the class of Aves. They have unique body parts that differentiate them from other creatures. Feathers, beaks, wings, and a four-chambered heart are some of the distinctive bird body parts. 

According to the current statistics, there are about ten thousand species of birds. Every species of bird have different body parts according to their state of evolution and their living conditions. Knowledge about the bird body parts helps to identify the different species of birds. 

Key Birds Body Parts

  • Head – Head is the most important body part that helps to differentiate different species of birds. The head of a bird consists of other parts such as 
  • Forehead  – The area of the head above the bill and just below the crown is the forehead. 
  • Beak – Beaks are one of the most unique features of birds. Beaks are lightweight jaws that help the birds to catch prey and to eat. Birds can move their upper jaws very widely without moving other parts of the head, which helps them to open their mouths widely.  The beak is the most prominent feature on the head of a bird.

Related Read: Which birds eat mealworms? | How do birds find worms?

Do birds have noses?

Birds do not have noses, they have nostrils on their beaks, which help them to smell. 

  • Chin – The area right under the beak is the chin. The chin is difficult to see, except when it is in a different color.    
  • Eyes – Birds have excellent vision thanks to their powerful eyes. The eyes of a bird are located just below its forehead. Generally, birds have 3 eyelids. The upper eyelid, the lower eyelid, and the nictitating membrane. The birds close the lower eyelid while sleeping. The third eyelid called the nictitating membrane protects the bird’s eyes from wind, dust, and light. It also keeps the eyes moist and clean.   

Related Read: How & When Do Birds Sleep? | Do Birds Sleep Standing Up? | Do Birds Dream?

  • Ears Birds have a keen sense of hearing. They communicate among themselves and other creatures using bird calls and sounds. In fact, some birds like oilbirds, etc. use echolocation to find prey and for navigation. Birds also use their ears to balance themselves during the flight. The ears of the birds are not clearly visible as they are internal. The opening of the ears can be seen just below the eyes. They are protected from dust and objects by a protective layer of feathers called auriculars.   
  • Throat – Birds make a variety of noises using their throat. They use noise to relay messages about food, shelter, and danger.

But how do they make these noises?

Do birds have vocal cords? 

Birds have a voice box. Their throat contains an organ called the syrinx, which acts just like the vocal cord in humans. The syrinx consists of two membranes that vibrate and produce sound. 

Humans also use their tongues also to produce certain sounds.

Do birds have tongues?   

Yes, just like humans, birds have tongues. Birds use their tongues to facilitate food intake, swallow food, and communicate. The tongue is located in the lower beak of a bird. It is made of bones and cartilage.

The bird tongue consists of papillae, which are hair-like structures. The papillae allow the birds to keep food in their mouth and filter it. 

Related Read: Do Birds Eat Grass Seed? | How to keep birds off from Garden Grass

Do birds have tastebuds? 

Birds have salivary glands and taste buds on their tongue. However, the number of tastebuds in a bird’s mouth is very low, when compared to us. 

Do birds have brains? 

Birds have brains that are well developed. The brain provides birds with skills such as intelligence, sensory perception, balance, and muscle coordination. The optic lobes of a bird are particularly well developed. They carry impulses from the eye to the cerebellum, which processes muscle actions. 

Do Birds Have Wings?

Wings are modified forelimbs of a bird. The skeletal structure of wings resembles that of the arms in humans. The flight muscles located in the chest area of a bird support the wings and help the birds to fly. The size and shape of the wings determine the flight style of a bird. 

Related Read: Do Birds Get Tired Of Flying | How Long Can Birds Fly Without Stopping?

Do Birds Have Legs?

Birds have legs with four toes. The toes help in perching, catching prey, transporting materials and food, tearing food, climbing trees, preening, and swimming.

How do birds use their toes? Do birds have claws? 

Birds have sharp claws at the edge of their toes. These claws are known as talons.  The shape and size of talons vary among different species of birds. Birds of prey such as raptors, hawks, etc. have large and pointed talons. 

Do Birds Have Tail?

Almost all birds have a tail. The tail helps birds to control the direction of the flight. They move the tail to change directions. It also helps them in landing. Birds such as peacocks and pheasants use their ornamental tails to attract mates. 

These are some of the important bird body parts that one should know about to improve their understanding of these beautiful creatures. 

Birds have a hectic lifestyle. They are always on the move and require a specially designed structure that suits their lifestyle. Here are some interesting facts about the bird’s body parts

21 Facts You Should Know About Birds

1. Do Birds Have Hair? 

Hair helps our bodies to regulate body temperature.

Birds do not have hair on their body. Then how do they stay warm? Birds have feathers to keep them warm. The feathers of a bird are made of a substance called keratin. ( human hair and nails are also made up of the same substance.)

There are different types of feathers on a bird’s body, each of them having its unique size, shape, and function. 

2. Do Birds Have Lungs?

Have you ever wondered how birds breathe? Do birds have lungs or gills for respiration?

Birds have a different respiratory system in comparison to other vertebrates. In addition to supplying the body with oxygen and removing carbon dioxide from the bird body, the respiratory system also helps in thermoregulation.

A bird’s respiratory system consists of lungs and air sacs. The lungs are smaller in size in comparison to other vertebrates. The air sacs of a bird facilitate the unidirectional flow of air to ensure there is higher oxygen content in the blood.  

3. Do Birds Have Jaws? 

The beak or bill of a bird is one of the most prominent features of its head. The beak is a modified version of the jaw. Birds use their beaks to catch prey, transport food and nest building material, and their babies. 

4. Do Birds Have Teeth? 

Birds do not have teeth like humans.  One of the main reasons for their absence is the presence of teeth and jaws will make the bird’s body heavy and cause difficulty in flight. 

5. Do Birds Have Hollow Bones? 

We learned in primary school that birds have hollow bones. But do you know the reason why?

Birds have hollow bones to supply them with more oxygen when flying. However,  the bones are not completely hollow like a straw. They have fibers and structures that make the bones strong and lightweight. The long bones in birds are pneumatic. 

6. Why Birds are Having Pneumatic Bones? 

Birds have pneumatic bones, which are filled with tiny spaces for air. Birds have air sacs in addition to lungs. These air sacs extend into the hollow bones of the birds, which make them pneumatic.

This feature allows them to take in oxygen, both during inhalation and exhalation. 

7. Do Birds have Bone Marrow? 

All of the bird bones are not hollow and pneumatized. Birds have bone marrow in their non-pneumatized bones such as the pelvic girdle and the keel.

Even the pneumatized bones have bone marrow at the ends and in the cancellous structure. The bone marrow produces red blood cells and white blood cells. 

8. Do Birds have Tetrachromacy? 

The cones present inside the retina help us to see light and color. Birds have four cones in their eyes, which make them tetrachromatic. This enables them to identify more colors than us. Birds can even perceive colors that are part of the ultraviolet spectrum.

9. Do Birds Have Digestive System? 

The digestive system of living creatures helps them to break down food and absorb nutrition from it. However, the digestive system of birds is different from that of other vertebrates.

Unlike the single-chambered stomach of humans and other animals, birds have a stomach with two chambers. The first chamber called proventriculus produces the gastric juices, while the second chamber gizzard stores food and digests it.  

10. Do Birds have Intestines? 

Birds have both small intestine and large intestine. The small intestine in birds is similar to that of humans and other mammals. It consists of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum.

The small intestine aids in the absorption of nutrients from the food.

The large intestine consists of the colon, caeca, and cloaca. It aids in the absorption of water and electrolytes. 

11. Do Birds have Kidneys? 

Birds have two kidneys that aid in the elimination of wastes from their body. The kidneys filter the blood and collect waste.

They are attached to the ureter that carries the uric acid generated by the kidneys to the cloaca, the excretory organ. 

12. Do Birds have Urinary Bladder? 

Bird kidneys convert the excess nitrogen in their bodies into uric acid. This uric acid is transported to the cloaca, where it is mixed with solid waste and excreted.

Birds do not have urinary bladders and urethra. The waste is directly transported from the kidney to the cloaca. 

13. Do Birds Have UrinaryTract? 

Birds do not urinate as they do not have a urinary bladder or urinary tract. The nitrogen from their blood is converted into uric acid and excreted through the cloaca.

The cloaca of birds is the combined opening for both the excretory system and the digestive system. 

14. Do Birds Have Urine? 

Birds do not have urine. The uric acid from the kidneys passes through the ureters and reaches the cloaca. Here it is mixed with the feces from the digestive system and is passed out in the form of a thick paste.

The absence of urine helps birds prevent dehydration and survive with a little amount of water. 

15. Do Birds have Uterus? 

Birds do have a uterus, also known as the shell gland. The uterus is one of the five parts of the oviduct. It is large and muscular in most birds.

The uterus produces a calcareous shell that contains collagen and other inorganic minerals. The uterus turns inside out and extends out of the cloaca when a bird lays eggs.

16. Do Birds have Uvulas? 

Humans have Uvula at the back of their mouths. The uvula is also referred to as the ‘palentine uvula’ as it forms part of the soft palate. It helps in producing the gag reflex and prevents choking.  Birds do not have Uvulas. 

17. Do Birds Have X and Y Chromosomes? 

Birds have sex chromosomes that determine their gender. However, they do not have X and Y chromosomes. Birds have Z and W chromosomes. The male birds have two copies of a large Z chromosome, while the female birds have one Z chromosome and a tiny W chromosome. 

18. Do Birds have XY chromosomes? 

Birds do not have XY chromosomes. They have ZZ and ZW chromosomes. ZZ chromosomes are found in male birds while the ZW chromosomes are found in female birds.

One interesting fact about bird reproduction is that the female bird can influence the gender of its offspring. 

19. Do Birds Have Vertebrae? 

Birds have vertebrae and fall under the classification of vertebrates. They are warm-blooded creatures and are closely related to the reptiles in their body composition as they have evolved from reptiles. 

The vertebral column of a bird consists of 5 sections: 

  • Cervical or neck
  • Dorsal or trunk
  • Synsacrum
  • Caudal
  • Pygostyle

20. Do Birds Have a Backbone? 

Birds are vertebrates and they have internal skeletons, feathers, and backbone. The bird body consists of a spinal cord and central nervous system at the top followed by the digestive system and anus at the end. 

21. Do Birds Have Umbilical cords? 

The umbilical cord in mammals carries oxygen and nutrients from the mother’s body to the foetus.

Birds do not have umbilical cords as they grow inside the egg, which contains a life support system. The baby birds get all the nutrition required for their development from the yolk and eggshell. However, there is a tiny cord that attaches the embryo to the yolk sac and provides the necessary nutrients. 


Birds are similar to humans and other vertebrates in their body structure. However, they have evolved some special bird body parts that help them to catch up with their unique lifestyles.

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