A member of the Ramphastidae family, toucans, are distinguished by their enormously large serrated beak with bright, distinct coloration. The bird is oddly shaped, with its beak comprising almost half its body length.
There are about 40 species of toucans categorized into five genera. They come in all shapes and sizes ranging from a 24-inch toco toucan to a jay-sized toucanet.
Despite the variations, there are a few adaptations that all toucans have made to survive. Here we overview a few of toucan behavioral adaptations, physical, environmental, etc. Stay touted!
What is The Adaptation of a Toucan?
Toucan is way different from other birds that we know. Marked by their distinctive and oddly-shaped body, they are native to the neotropical regions of South and Central America.
Unlike other birds, toucans are poor flyers and primarily exotic, wild birds.
Toucans have undergone several adaptations that help them to survive well in the wild and live for about twenty years.
What Are Some Adaptations That a Toucan Has?
There are several remarkable adaptations that a toucan has adopted for survival. Let us unravel a few of them.
1. Physical Adaptations of a Toucan
There are several physical features of a toucan that help it survive well in the wild, i.e., in the rainforests. A few of them are:
Toucans are noted for their brightly colored beaks and relatively neutral-colored bodies. It helps them to blend well with the foliage of the rainforests and hide well to keep away predators.
They can also change the colors of their feathers. It helps them to camouflage and blend well with the environment. Predators fail to spot them, and hence, they get saved.
The toucans have extremely large protracted beaks, comprising a minimum of 1/3rd of their length. They are made of keratin. Hence, they can grow long but still remain lightweight.
It might look like a liability on the surface as they prevent the toucans from developing an ability to fly. But they are very useful to the toucans.
Its vibrant colors help the toucan camouflage itself in the dense rainforest and protect itself from predators.
The beak is so designed that it can choose, break, and eat almost every tropical fruit available in the rainforest. Moreover, its length allows the toucans to access fruits at a higher altitude that is out of reach of other birds. It is vital as toucans live almost exclusively on fruits.
The beak is also a useful tool for toucans to preen their feathers and defend themselves against small predators.
Toucans are oddly shaped because of their excessively large beaks, relatively small bodies, and short wings. It makes them poor flyers and restricts their mobility.
To counteract it, toucans have very strong legs and toes. They have four toes on each foot. The first and the fourth face backward, while the other two faces forward.
It helps them grip branches almost like humans and climb trees effortlessly.
Apart from the stronghold, it also helps the toucans to hop and walk along branches and trees, thereby eliminating the need to fly using their wings.
Toucans have eyesight far more powerful than any other bird.
It enables them to identify the predators far early than they spot them. It also gives them adequate time to hide or fly away and save themselves from the potential predators.
Toucans are unique in having a tongue almost the same length as their beak. It plays an important role in the feeding habits of the toucan.
The tongue stops swallowing any food that is too large for the bird to eat. The tongue stops it at the back of the throat and helps throw it out again for mashing and breaking.
The tongue also helps scrape and clean the fruit pieces that often get stuck in the toucan’s beak while eating.
It also helps them catch small insects, reptiles, and amphibians to eat when fresh fruits are unavailable.
2. Behavioral Adaptations of a Toucan
Toucans are social birds who display interesting behavior to survive in the wild, like:
Toucans usually live in a flock of six and in pairs. Following the group norm, they take turns cleaning each other’s bodies with their beaks.
Most of the time, toucans are active and mobile. They travel together in search of food. Both parents take care of the eggs and young ones together.
Toucans are known for their noisy and gregarious behavior. Squawking, barking, chattering, etc., are just a few sounds you can hear from them.
This vocalization plays an important part in their communication with each other and in fighting predators.
They have different calls that they use to communicate with each other for various purposes like mating, warnings, calling to the chicks, etc.
If they spot any enemy, the entire flock makes loud, almost deafening noises to scare off the predator.
Toucans also try to scare them by displaying their huge beaks. However, their beak is not strong enough to fight off any predator.
3. Environmental Adaptation of a Toucan
We already know of some adaptations that the toucans have adopted to survive well in the rainforest environment like their ability to change the color of their feathers. A few other noteworthy adaptations are:
Regulation of Body Temperature
Research shows that toucans can adjust the flow of blood to their beaks. This way, they can regulate their body temperature and survive well in any weather conditions. It protects them from overheating in the tropical environment.
Nesting and Sleeping Habit
To merge with the environment and protect themselves, toucans have taken to nesting in holes.
Furthermore, they can turn their heads and put their long beaks on their backs.
The beak is pushed down and tucked between the body and the wings. The toucan also folds its tail on its back. Consequently, it merges into the dark environment and appears as a ball of feathers.
Staying Within Covers
Since toucans are poor flyers, they have adapted to stay within covers. This way, they remain hidden from their predators and stay safe even when living in the canopy.
4. Food Adaptation of the Toucan
The food adaptation is a shining example of the toucan’s adaptation to living in a rainforest.
Toucans live primarily on fruits despite being omnivorous, as rainforests are abundant in fruits.
They would eat almost all available fruits. Their long beaks help them reach for fruits on higher and lighter branches and pluck them.
Moreover, its beaks have serrated or toothed edges for easy catching, grasping, or even skinning the fruits.
Suppose a fruit is large for them to eat and they do not have the teeth to bite, then toucans throw the fruit in the air and catch it with their beaks to mash it. They do it repeatedly until they are able to eat the fruits.
If the fruit is not available, toucans will eat the eggs and hatchlings of other birds. They would also feed on small insects, amphibians, and reptiles to survive.
Toucans are a unique bird of their species. Its adaptations make us marvel at the wonders of nature. We hope you enjoyed knowing about the toucan’s adaptations as much as we enjoyed compiling them.